Join 1M+ Professionals
Send My Videos & Book!
Send Me My Free Videos & Book!

A Comprehensive List of Business Models To Accelerate You and Your Business

International DevOps Certification Academy™
05 February 2022

Business Model Business Innovation Checklist for Business Design

Are you good at business models?
Of course you are. We know all about business models, don’t we?

A lifetime as a consumer and almost a lifetime as a professional we all believe that we are well proficient in business models. We don’t hesitate more than a second to give our opinion if a business idea will work or not. And we are very generous to give our feedback how a company can perform better. But do we really have enough insights about business models?

We still receive significant number of questions from our community and from our humble students who ask for a second opinion about complementary business models to flourish their services and products. To properly answer this question we have made a research on business model innovation.

Guess how many different models we have revealed? 15? 30? No.
We have identified 55 business models for you.

The list below presents these business models with a short description and some example companies who have successfully exploited these business models. This article is not meant to be a comprehensive in-depth guide to introduce various different business models, but it intends to cover the surface of big picture for most common business models.
We also hope that this list serves you as a simple checklist the next time you establish, enhance or innovate a business model.

Let us know in the comments sections below which business models you find most attractive as a consumer and/or as a professional. If you have any questions or require further clarity, please drop a comment too.

Business ModelHow Does it Work?Who Uses it?
Add-On (Upsell)Sell Extra Custom FeaturesRyanair
AffiliationUse Sellers for you to sell your productsAmazon
AikidoDisrupt against the proposition of competitionNintendo Wii
AuctionBidding, Reverse AuctionEbay
BarterSponsoring and Value ExchangeP&G to give away Pampers, Pepsi to import Vodka to export Cola
Cash MachineCollect Money from customers, but pay later to suppliersAmazon, Dell, Travel Checks
Cross SellingSell other products which can be relevant to customersShell, Tchibo
CrowdfundingCrowd invests for a sample productPebble, Music Record
CrowdsourcingCrowd thinks, delivers, choosesP&G Connect & Develop, Cisco
Customer LoyaltyLoyalty Card Programs to collect discount balanceAirlines, Advantage Card
DigitalisationPhysical Products and Offers become immaterialSpiegel Magazine
Direct SellingProducer directly faces and sells to customersTesla, Tupperware, Dell, Vorwerk
E-CommerceBusiness transactions and communications via ICTAmazon, Würth (intelligent box to give orders autonomously when the amount of supply goes low)
Experience SellingOffers exclusive and unique product and service experience combined with positive emotionsStarbucks, Nespresso, Ikea, Marlboro
FlatrateOffers unlimited use with the comfort to control pricesNetflix, Spotify, flat rate telecommunications subscriptions, all inclusive tourism offers
Fractionalized OwnershipCustomer owns a specific portion or usage rights of a productTimesharing holiday resorts, Netjets (network with 8000 airplanes), Sefage (Car Sharing Initiative established in 1948)
FranchisingFranchiser offers its business concept for expansion with the resources of franchisee whereas franchisee enjoys reduced risks and established brand and business processesMcDonald’s, Pizza Hut, Marriott, Starbucks
FreemiumFree basic version to wake the interest of customer and introduce the product, Paid advanced versions with full featuresSkype, Spotify, Mailchimp, LinkedIn, Dropbox
From Push-To-PullPut customers as the central driving factor in every operation and decision, Produce only what the customer is ready to buy and do it as efficient as it is possible without wasteToyota, Zara, Geberit
Guaranteed AvailabilityProvider offers uninterrupted availability instead of ownership, Provider is responsible for achieving this including timely repair, replacement and maintenanceHilti, Fleet Management, Otis, IBM
Hidden RevenueOffers free or cheap service to customers, but generates revenue from adsFree newspapers, TV, Google
Ingredient BrandingCreating a brand for a component or a feature of a productIntel for processors, Shimano for bicycle components, Bosch vehicle components
IntegratorOffering supplies mostly by own means with minimal dependency on 3rd Party suppliersZara, Ford
Layer PlayerSpecialised products and services which usually operate in multiple industriesPaypal, TRUSTe, Dennemeyer, Outsourcing Providers
Leverage Customer DataImproved decision making and offering capabilities from the insights gained from raw customer rawGoogle, Amazon, Facebook, Twitter
LicenseFocusing and investing on the commercialisation of intellectual propertiesMickey Mouse, IBM, BASF, ARM Limited
Lock-InOffering products and services which are attached to intensive costs, time and learning if the customer wants to move to another providerSoftware, Operating Systems, Gillette, Nespresso, Innovative external interfaces of hardware and mobile devices
Long TailOffering a large portfolio of products, not only the ones most people buy, but also niche productsAmazon, Ebay, iTunes, Netflix
Make More Of ItOffering core competencies to others externallyPorsche Consulting, Porsche Engineering, Festo, AWS
Mass CustomisationCustomised Products but still in Mass Production, usually established with modular designs and componentsDell, Automobile Industry, Apple Watch with various bands, Levi’s, mymuesli
No FrillsCheapest prices by offering unusual, but still essential version of productsFord’s T-Modell, Southwest Airlines, Aldi, McFit, McDonald’s
Open Business ModelInvolving external business partners for open research, development and innovation without detailed planning, P&G’s Connect+Develop to build new product ideasEli Lilly to build InnoCentive to solve complex scientific problems, IBM’s investments on Linux
Open SourceProducts are built by community, Revenue doesn’t come directly from the product, but from the services around itMozilla, Red Hat, Wikipedia, Local Motors
OrchestratorCompany focuses only on its core competence, everything else is provided by third parties, but the company is also excelled to administer and integrate the activities of third party providersNike, Bharti Airtel, Li & Fung
Pay Per UseCustomer is charged based on her effective use of services and productsPay-Per-View TV Offers, Pay-Per-Click Advertisement, Car2Go, Ally Financial’s Pay-Per-Risk Advertisement
Pay What You WantCustomer decides how much she wants to pay for a given service or productOne World Everybody Eats, Radiohead, Noisetrade, Humble Bundle
Peer-to-PeerCompany enables business transactions between private personseBay, Zopa, Airbnb, Uber, Upwork
Performance-based ContractingClient is charged based on the monetary benefit it received from the offer or based on successful delivery of complex/risky offersRolls-Royce airplane motors, BASF Coatings, Xerox
Razor and BladeBase component of the offer is either cheap or free of charge, but the complementary components to be able continue using the product is more expensiveLamp oils from Standard Oil Company, Gillette, Printer Inks, Nespresso
Rent Instead Of BuyCustomer rents the product instead of buying it which frees the customer to do capital intensive investments to use the productSaunders System, Xerox, CWS-boco
Revenue SharingStrategical partnership and collaboration to increase revenues in a win-win situationCDNow, iTunes, AppStore, Groupon, Consultancy Industry
Reverse EngineeringDetailed Analysis of competitor’s products, services and business models to exploit the gained knowhow for its own businessBrilliance China Auto, Software, War industry
Reverse InnovationInnovation and R&D are executed in developing countries to meet the extreme needs of developing countries, and then the offer is brought to developed countriesGeneral Electric, Dacia Logan, Nokia, Haier
Robin HoodEarn more from privileged customer segment, but supply more to unprivileged customer segment which may not otherwise afford the offerAravind Eye Care System, TOMS Shoes, One Laptop Per Child
Self-ServiceCustomer is actively involved in the delivery process of the offer, so thanks to the saved costs the company can further invest or reduce its pricesSupermarkets, restaurants, Ikea, Backwerk, Ibis Budget
Shop-in-ShopAs the name implies, this is about opening a business or a store (rent or franchise) inside another business or storeBosch, Tschibo, Amazon Marketplace
Solution ProviderOffering not only a product, but also a turn-key solution around customer’s problem, so the customer can focus on its own core businessHeidelberger Druckmaschinen, Würth, Tetra Pak, 3M Services, Geek-Squad
SubscriptionRecurring services or deliverables in regular time intervalsSalesforce, Blacksocks, Dollar Shave Club, Mailchimp, Entrepreneur Magazine
SupermarketOffers a large spectrum of product to fulfil many requirements of the customer at one placeToys"R"Us, Merrill Lynch, MediaMarkt, King Kullen Grocery Company
Target The PoorOffers are targeted to the bottom of income pyramid, they are usually designed to cover minimal, but still essential needs of customersHindistan Unilever, Grameen Bank, Tata Nano, Walmart
Trash-To-CashExploit recycled material to build new products with reduced costs, Give the customer good conscience to use your productFreitag lab. AG, Greenwire, Emeco
Two-Sided-MarketPlatform concept where the suppliers and customers are brought togetherDiners Club, Ebay, Amazon, Zappos, Groupon, Facebook, Google
Ultimate LuxeryOffers are targeted to the top of income pyramid, they are usually unique and suit for self-realisation needs of customers, Focus on branding, events, highest quality standards associated with large investments which are covered with high margin of sales pricesLamborghini, Jumeirah Group, Abbot Downing, Apple, Various watch producers
User DesignedGives consumers the ability and infrastructure to design, produce, sell and market their own custom productsSpreadshirt, Lego Factory, Ponoko, Dreamheels, Createmytattoo
White LabelOffers no-name Products to vendors without any branding, so the vendors define their branding and pricing, focuses mainly on production and distribution optimisationFoxconn, Richelieu Foods, Printing-In-A-Box

Share this Article with Your Friends and Colleagues!


Your DevOps Training Program prepared by our consortium of renowned Business and People Leaders, DevOps Coaches, Mentors, Experts and Authorities from all major Industries are available to all visitors of International DevOps Certification Academy™'s web site. Your Online DevOps Training Materials are accessible under Your Free DevOps Book and Your Free Premium DevOps Training items from the top menu.

Although this Online DevOps Training Program is the copyrighted intellectual property of International DevOps Certification Academy™, we wanted to make these materials freely accessible for everybody. We believe that only by sharing our expertise we can best serve for DevOps Professionals and for the further development of DevOps Domain.

Your DevOps Certification examination comprises multiple-choice Test Questions. Reading your Online DevOps Training Program will be very helpful for DevOps Professionals like you to acquire the knowhow to pass your DevOps Certification Examination and to get your DevOps Certification.

We guarantee that Your Free of Charge Premium Online Training will make you pass Your DevOps Certification Exam!

Send Me My Free Videos & Book!

About the Author - International DevOps Certification Academy™

International DevOps Certification Academy™ is an independent Institute which helps IT Organizations and Professionals get accredited with worldwide renowned and recognized Official DevOps Certifications and prove their competence in DevOps domain.

Your Official Certified DevOps Generalist™, DevOps Executive™, DevOps Project Manager™, DevOps Product Owner™, DevOps Architect™, DevOps Developer™, DevOps Operations Engineer™, DevOps Quality Assurance Engineer™, DevOps Information Security Engineer™, DevOps Release Manager™, DevOps Trainer™ and DevOps Coach™ Certification Programs have proven their worldwide Acceptance and Reputation by being the choice of more than 994,700 DevOps Professionals in 143 Countries.

DevOps is an open Software Development and Delivery Framework, and yet before International DevOps Certification Academy™ was founded for you, there has been no reasonable way for DevOps Professionals like yourself to obtain DevOps Certifications and to prove your competence in DevOps domain. DevOps Professionals had to pay expensive fees for the one way profit-driven DevOps Certification Programs of other DevOps Certification Entities.

International DevOps Certification Academy™ aims to remove these barriers set in front of the DevOps Professionals in developed and emerging markets by saving them from paying unreasonable fees for DevOps Classroom Trainings and DevOps Certification Examinations before they certify their knowhow in DevOps. Moreover, feel free to check out "What makes Your DevOps Certifications Best of the Industry?" section on our Home Page to read why we perform and serve you far more better than our competition.

International DevOps Certification Academy™ provides 12 major Official Online DevOps Certification Programs which are designed by our consortium of renowned Business and People Leaders, DevOps Coaches, Mentors, Experts and Authorities from all major Industries. Let's check out About Us page to find out more about your worldwide renowned and recognized DevOps Certifications.

Other Interesting Articles You Shouldn't Miss

Without DevOps in Your IT?
Five Killer Problems You Must Be Aware Of!

International DevOps Certification Academy™, 20 June 2023
Without DevOps In IT Five Killer Problems How To Learn DevOps

We are proud to announce that this article was featured...
HERE on LinkedIn >>>

Hi there, Let's be all together extremely honest today!

In the world of IT without DevOps, development and operations teams do usually conflict. End-to-end quality assurance of required client features and benefits first start after development team begins to work on a completely different project. Information security and production readiness audits are conducted the day before the planned production roll-out ...

Join This Discussion >>

8 Reasons Why International DevOps Certification Academy™ Serves You Far More Better Than Its Competitors!
International DevOps Certification Academy™, 21 May 2023
International DevOps Certification Academy™ Best Value For Your Money Credible and Affordable DevOps Training

Date: 21st May 2019
Location: Offices of International DevOps Certification Academy™ (Wollerau, Switzerland)

Hi there,
Many thanks for coming our page to read this short letter where we articulate 8 reasons why International DevOps Academy™ serves you far more better than its competitors.

Join This Discussion >>

What Are TOP 6 Differences Between DevOps and Scrum? (DevOps vs Scrum Comparison)
International DevOps Certification Academy™, 14 April 2023
DevOps vs Scrum DevOps Scrum Comparison DevOps overrules Scrum

During our live DevOps classes and preparation courses of DevOps certification programs, we have figured out that there is a single question that we never miss. So today, I decided to bring this short post together to answer this question. This question is: “What are differences between DevOps and Scrum?”. Also known as "DevOps vs Scrum Comparison".

Join This Discussion >>

Recording of Free Live Class: What is DevOps? How Does DevOps Skyrocket Careers With Basic Principles Every Software Professional Can Learn and Apply?
International DevOps Certification Academy™, 07 February 2023
Recording of Free Live Class What is Devps? DevOps Skyrockets Careers!

I thank you very much for coming to watch this recording!
Click the video on blog page to watch the recording of our free live class from 07 February 2019.

Join This Discussion >>

How Do You Sell DevOps Adoption in Your Organisation?
International DevOps Certification Academy™, 15 October 2023
DevOps Adoption DevOps Change Management DevOps for Big Corporations

Our typical approach is to present organisational and moral benefits of DevOps. How instantly DevOps would enhance our teams and excel the interactions within our organisation and with our client ecosystem. How wonderfully our companies would serve customer-oriented products and services.

Is this really the correct approach? Is it better to highlight benefits of adopting DevOps or the cost of not adopting?

Join This Discussion >>

Two Facts You Wanted To Know About the Revamp of
International DevOps Certification Academy™, 02 August 2023
International DevOps Certification Academy™ UI Design Revamp Enhanced User Experience

Dear Friends and Colleagues,

For the last few weeks we worked hard for you to make this revamp happen. If you are curious to know how International DevOps Certification Academy™ uses Scrum, here are two simple facts for you which may be also a benchmark for your own software development and delivery projects.

Join This Discussion >>

If I had 5 Minutes to explain Scrum Master As a Facilitator
International DevOps Certification Academy™, 19 June 2023
Scrum Master Scrum Master as a Facilitator Scrum Roles and Responsibilities

The role of a Scrum Master is one of many stances and diversity. A great Scrum Master is aware of them and knows when and how to apply them, depending on situation and context. Everything with the purpose of helping people understand and apply the Scrum framework better.

Join This Discussion >>

10 Tips to get the Best out of Your Daily Scrum Meetings
Our Guest Blogger - Nirav Patel (RapidOps Solutions) , 08 Mai 2023
Daily Scrum Daily Scrum Meeting Agile Scrum Team Work

The term ‘Meeting’ brings to our mind an atmosphere where a group of people are sitting together to discuss serious issues: Some sitting bored and uninterested; some staring blankly trying hard to get a grasp of what are being discussed; and still some aggressively trying to prove their point. However, with changing times and methodologies, with pressure to meet deadlines, with time constraints, with increasing competition and with the need to stay a step ahead, there arose a new face of meetings- ‘The Scrum Meetings’ or more commonly known as ‘The Daily Scrum Meetings’.

Join This Discussion >>

What Does it Take to be a Software Tester in an Agile Organisation?
Our Guest Blogger - NPAW (Nice People At Work) , 23 March 2023
Software Testing Testing in Agile Scrum QA in Agile Scrum

There is so much more to be a software tester than merely logging bugs and testing to identify errors. There are inspiring examples of Agile working environments. Software testers have there the privilege to work as part of development teams which are like working on a movie set with the writers and producers. The testers work with everyone on the team, from the Junior Programmers to the Senior Project Leaders and inventors to continuously improve and build quality into the products and services.

Join This Discussion >>

12 Technological Forces that Shape Your Future - Real and already Emerging
International DevOps Certification Academy™, 12 November 2022
Your Future with Technology Technological Forces Technological Trends

You are moving from the world of fixed nouns towards a world of fluid verbs. Within the next years you will continue taking solid things -such as a car or a jacket- and turning them into intangible verbs. Your products are becoming your services and processes. With high doses of built-in technology, your car is becoming a service, continuously updated set of benefits adapting to your own usage and feedback, fierce competition and global innovation.

Join This Discussion >>

A Super-Fast Way to 2x Your Professional Value...
International DevOps Certification Academy™, 06 August 2022
Professional Value Development Learning

Hi there, I love that you're here because one of my favourite things to do is take a smart professional and lifetime student like yourself and make you become even more successful.

It's something that I practice in my own career, of course, but I love helping others too.

Join This Discussion >>

Are You Looking For PDUs? You Shouldn't!
International DevOps Certification Academy™, 22 April 2022
PDU Lock-In Business Model Lock-In Free Education Degrees

Hi there, I hope I found you well and healthy. I am writing you about a subject that I was thinking since long time to write about it. Today is the day. :)

Are you looking for PDUs (Professional Development Units) to get or maintain a degree?

You shouldn't. Here is why? Because PDU is a byproduct of Lock-In Business Model, and this business model badly takes advantage of students.

Join This Discussion >>

Why are Only Few People Successful in Business?
International DevOps Certification Academy™, 15 September 2021
Success in Business Perspective on Opportunities Needs of Others instead of Yours

Hi there, Have you ever wondered why only too few people are successful? Many people work hard, they constantly chase for opportunities but still they have to spend and finish their careers with unsubstantial results. This is sad, so is the truth.

Like unsuccessful people, successful people chase for opportunities too, but what makes success scarce whereas mediocrity is abundant in professional careers?

Join This Discussion >>

Scrum Institute Reveals Shocking Secrets For Successful Scrum!
International Scrum Institute, 01 March 2021
Scrum Institute International Scrum Institute Success With Scrum

Many thanks for coming our page to read this short letter where we articulate 8 reasons why Scrum Institute serves you far more better than its competitors.

Before we deep dive details of this letter, let’s make it clear that we want to truly acknowledge your continuous support and trust in Scrum Institute,

Without you, your engagement and your loyal support, International Scrum Institute could not come where it’s today!

Here come 8 shocking secrets you should know about why International Scrum Institute serves you far more better than its competitors…

Join This Discussion >>
©2024 International DevOps Certification Academy™
All Rights Reserved.